<% '----------------------------------- ' 編輯日期: 10/13/2008 ' 編輯人員: 經賀祥 '----------------------------------- %>Research 2008-EPA-97-E3S4-02-01
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Research 2008

Project No

Project Title

EPA-97-E3S4-02-01

Establishing Analytical Methods for Pharmaceuticals in the Aquatic Environments

   

 

This final report has compiled the following specific information on PPCPs: (1) environmental occurrence, (2) toxicity/estrogenicity, (3) environmental risk assessment, (4) drug usage (including amount imported and used), (5) analytical method development grouping for coming projects. In addition, this report includes our analytical results on 26 selected antibiotics, including LC and mass spec optimizing conditions and QA/QC (recovery test, matrix effect study, precision and accuracy, and method detection limit). The target antibiotics are sulfadimethoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfisomidin, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfisoxazole, sulfaquinozaline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, tylosin, ampicillin, penicillin G, cephapirin, cefazolin and trimethoprim. For recovery, DI water and reservoir water were used as blanks, the recoveries range from 63-115% and 71-117%, respectively. The method detection limits (MDL) range from 0.1-2.5 ng/L, except that cefazolin is 10 ng/L. Two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and three rivers were examined using the established methods. Based on analyzed data, concentrations of target antibiotics observed in present study were comparable to those reported in the literatures around the world. Sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, oxytetracycline, erythromycin-H2O, lincomycin, clarithromycin, cefazolin and trimethoprim were detected most frequently in all taken samples (frequency of detection >78%). Most of antibiotics were not completely removed by WWTPs. Especially, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin-H2O, clarithromycin and trimethroprim were not effectively removed by WWTPs, because their removal efficiencies in these two WWTPs were less than 40%.

Update: 2011/7/12             

 



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